This is the most common form of the canoe in uce among the Indians from; the Chil-luck-kit-te-quaw inclusive to the Ocean and is usually about 30 or 35 feet long, and will carry from ten to twelve persons. 4 men are competent to carry them a considerable distance say a mile without resting. A is the end which they use as the bow, but which on first sight I took to be the stern C. D. is a comb cut of the sollid stick with the canoe and projects from the center of the end of the canoe being about 1 inch thirck it's sides parallel and edge at C D. sharp. it is from 9 to 11 Inches in length and extends from the underpart of the bowsprit at A to the bottom of the canoe at D.— the stern B. is mearly rounding and graduly ascending. 1 2 3 represents the rim of the gunwalls about 4 Inches wide, reather ascending as they recede from the canoe. 4 5 6 7 8 are the round holes through which the cross bars are inserted.—
Paddle, Small Canoe, Canoe with High Bow,
This form of canoe we did not meet with untill we reached tidewater or below the grand rappids. from thence down it is common to all the nations but more particularly the Killamucks and others of the coast. these are the largest canoes. B. is the bow and comb. C. the stern and comb. their immages are representations of a great variety of grotesque figures, any of which might be safely worshiped without committing a breach of the commandments.
They have but few axes among them, and the only too usually imployed in felling the trees or forming the canoe, carving &c is a chiseel formed of an old file about an Inch or an Inch and a half broad. this chissel has sometimes a large block of wood for a handle; they grasp the chissel just below the block with the right hand holding the edge down while with the left they take hold of the top of the block and strick backhanded against the wood with the edge of the chissel. a person would suppose that the forming of a large canoe with an instrument like this was the work of several years; but these people make them in a few weeks. they prize their canoes very highly; we have been anxious to obtain some of them, for our journey up the river but have not been able to obtain one as yet from the natives in this neighbourhood.— today we opened and examined all our ammunition, which had been secured in leaden canesters. we found twenty seven of the best rifle powder, 4 of common rifle, three of glaized and one of the musqut powder in good order, perfectly as dry as when first put in the canesters, altho' the whole of it from various accedents has been for hours under the water. these cannesters contain four lbds. of powder each and 〈contain〉 8 of lead. had it not have been for that happy expedient which I devised of securing the powder by means of the lead, we should not have had a single charge of powder at this time. three of the canesters which had been accedentally bruized and cracked, one which was carelessly stoped, and a fifth that had been penetrated with a nail, were a little dammaged; these we gave to the men stock to last us back; and we always take care to put a proportion of it in each canoe, to the end that should one canoe or more be lost we should still not be entirely bereft of ammunition, which is now our only hope for subsistence and defence in a rout of 4000 miles through a country exclusively inhabited by savages.—[Clark] Saturday February 1st 1806
This morning a party of four men Set out with Jo. Field; and Sergt. Gass with a party of five men again Set out up the Netul river in Serch of the Elk which had been killed Some days since, and which Could not be found in Consequence of the Snow.